Category Archives: Drone

How NOT to Fly Drones

Permit me to stray off path here, this will not be about wireless networking.

Drones have become immensely popular among hobbyists and ever more useful in a range of business and emergency response situations. It’s fairly amazing to be able to mail order what amounts to a legitimate aircraft, take it out of the box, and put it up into the sky.

Which brings us to the problem. Actually several of them.

Lots of Use Cases

But first- some context. If you zoom out and consider the current “drone landscape”, you’ll find a fairly diverse ecosystem, There are hundreds of individuals out there flying drones professionally, making their full-time living at surveys, mapping, inspections, and a range of other applications. Then there are people like me… we have other day jobs, but also became FAA-certified as Part 107 Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) pilots like the full-timers so we can legally do occasional drone work for pay. Both groups have demonstrated understanding of the rules of drone flight, and how our aircraft fit into the larger picture of all aircraft peacefully co-existing as part of a controlled system.

Finally, we those other people. If you are interested in getting into drones, you don’t want to be one of those other people. Let’s talk about them, and the associated problems they create.

The Stupid Runs Thick

Back to the fact that you can spend some money and have a powerful drone delivered to your doorstep. I don’t mean powerful in the military sense, but more so in the capabilities of the everyday drones a newbie might get into. Offerings from Autel Robotics (my current fleet),  DJI, and others in the mainstream market can go real high, real far, real fast, and take amazing photos and video. Anyone can get one, and better models are introduced frequently. Those other people love them.

They love them in the stupidest ways.

I’m in several drone-related community forums. Some are for commercial pilots where the dialogue is about aircraft safety, regulations, business opportunities, and the future of the industry. Other forums are pure hobbyist, and where those other people weave tales of stupidity that make those of us who know better cringe. Here you’ll find several recurring themes:

  • I unboxed my new bird and immediately did a “range test” to see how high and far I could push it. (YouTube has no shortage of these.)
  • My new expensive drone just FELL OUT OF THE SKY and boy am I pissed at the manufacturer.
  • My new expensive drone JUST UP AND FLEW AWAY and boy am I pissed at the manufacturer.
  • I don’t know how to do some basic feature that the user manual covers very well.
  • Look at these awesome shots I took at this place, where I really shouldn’t have been flying.

You’re probably starting to get a feel for those other people. They do irresponsible drone things that give us all a bad reputation. They don’t learn how to use their own equipment after dropping sometimes a couple of grand, and when something goes wrong it is automatically the manufacturer’s fault. They fly WHERE they want, WHEN they want, and they damn sure don’t care that by regulation you are not supposed to recreationally fly above 400′ AGL (above ground level) and are also not supposed to let the drone get out of your sight lest the drone run into trouble that the operator can’t see coming (hence the problem with range tests). Nor do they understand that the control signals between the drone and the controller are usually in 2.4 GHz, fairly low power, and subject to interference if you fly around Wi-Fi networks and such.

Know Right From Wrong

You can be new to drones and not become one of those other people. It’s pretty easy to stay legal, and keep your craft from FLYING AWAY or FALLING OUT OF THE SKY. Here’s how:

  • Know that any drone you buy is likely going to be subject to FAA regulation, even if you aren’t a certified drone pilot. Start here. Register your drones and start off legal.
  • Know that collisions DO happen between drones and other aircraft. See this.
  • Read the manuals that come with your drone, before you fly. Highlight areas that maybe aren’t clear to you and research them until you get it. Watch the countless online tutorials for any drone.
  • Do all of the required software/firmware updates associated with the drone, the controller, your apps, and even the batteries on some models.
  • Do all of the initial calibrations required-  control sticks, camera gimbal, etc.
  • Practice in a safe area before you get it up there high and far.
  • Don’t fly where you are likely to compete with Wi-Fi signals.
  • Never fly over people.
  • Know that many parks are off-limits, because those people have done stupid things to warrant the restrictions.
  • Join the user forums for your drone, but know that they are populated by many of those people.
  • Don’t be a jerk with your drone. There are enough of them out there already.

Happy flying!



Draganfly Answers the Pandemic With Innovative Drone Application

draganflyAs I write this, it’s mid-April of 2020 and most of the civilized world is hunkered down in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic. It’s a strange time, but out of crisis often comes great innovation. One excellent example just came to me in the form of correspondence with a commercial drone company named Draganfly. A long-time leader in commercial drone platforms and technology, Draganfly is now bringing another powerful tool to the hands of those charged with identifying, monitoring, and responding to pandemics and disease.

Let’s get right to the money shot, as we say in the business- take 90 seconds and digest this video: DF_VI_News_Release_2020_03_25_02_Final – BIG Admin

Draganfly has already gone down the paths of drone-based delivery and even drone-based disinfecting of spaces and surfaces, but their new “pandemic drone” technology adds from-a-distance detection of a range of symptoms:

  • Coughing
  • Elevated temperature
  • High blood pressure
  • Sneezing
  • Rabid heartbeat

With purpose-built sensors and AI-based deep learning, Draganfly is basically equipping drones to be force-multipliers for disease diagnosis. There’s a lot to contemplate here.

In talking with Draganfly, they estimate a fairly short learning curve to use the drone platform in this new role. The operator will have to find the best angle, height, and distance to get the most accurate readings for the specialized software in use, but Draganfly has a proven history of success with balancing highly accurate sensing with ease-of-use.

The goal is to not only identify infected individuals, but also patterns in larger populations in hotspot areas (think NYC, Boston, and Seattle for example) to proactively identify new health situations or new pockets of density for known issues like Covid-19.

Currently, there are a number of “pandemic drone” trials going on, with wider adoption expected fairly soon. Though exactly how it may be deployed still remains to be seen, but I can imagine a number of government and private agencies and organizations being extremely interested in Draganfly’s latest.

This is one to continue following, says I.

If you are interested in other Draganfly goings on, have a look here.

As a reminder, beyond being a WLAN and networking professional, I am also a drone enthusiast and FAA-licensed Part 107 drone pilot. Wirednot is a “mostly” wireless blog. Thanks as always for reading, and comments are always welcomed.

Inspired Flight- An American Commercial Drone Company

I recently got wind of Inspired Flight, a drone company based in San Louis Obispo, California, through one of the many professional drone pilot groups I belong to on Facebook. Ever interested in new companies in this fascinating space, I had to do what bloggers do and reach out to them to get the inside scoop.


If you’re not familiar with commercial-grade drones versus those you can grab at the hobby shop, the delta generally comes down to build quality, sophistication of components, variety of payloads that can be supported, and yes- cost. beyond the hobby space, drones are tools. They are analytics platforms. They are the building blocks of careers and success stories in a variety of realms from agriculture to videography to military operations.

Back to Inspired Flight.  One look at their latest IF750A drone, and it’s obvious that the company is serious about their commercial offerings.


There’s a lot there to appreciate, and I got a good overview from Adam Bilmes, Inspired Flight’s Marketing Program Director. I hit Adam with my questions that come from the perspective of an FAA-certificated (yes that’s the word for it) Remote Pilot, but also one interested in seeing domestic drone companies gain share in a market dominated by foreign platforms. I hope to one day take an Inspired Flight bird for a spin, but meanwhile it’s exciting just to learn more about the company.

Here’s the discussion:

As a compan­­­y, what should people know and appreciate about Inspired Flight?

Inspired Flight is a San Luis Obispo, California based company that develops and produces various modular commercial quadcopter platforms. We take pride in being able to offer an American-made system at a price significantly lower and higher quality than that of overseas competitors. People should know that our mission is to provide safe, cost-effective, and reliable solutions for the endless applications that drones can provide for businesses and consumers.

Your gear looks beautiful, definite eye candy that’s easy to appreciate. Beyond the really slick appearance, what can you tell me about the IF750A’s performance specs and payload options?

The IF750 & IF750A platform was designed to be extremely modular and customizable. Payload options are easily swappable through our mounting system and the drone can carry a payload up to 2.5 kg (5.5 lb). A user can easily go from a professional DSLR camera being used for photogrammetry, to a LIDAR system being used to take 3D maps, to a thermal camera being used to monitor wildfires. This level of modularity and amount of payload options isn’t available in any other enterprise level drone. The IF750A has: an Intel Nuc running 4 Intel RealSense cameras for obstacle avoidance; Trimble RTK for extremely stable flight, geotagging of data and images, and position hold within 1 cm; full SDK integration with Sony cameras; a ballistic parachute recovery system; Auterion’s enterprise support system. [These specs are BEEFY -Lee]

The IF750A was fully designed with the end user in mind. That is why our platform has a virtually unlimited amount of payload options that a user can use for their particular need. We guarantee an optimal user experience right out of the box and a drone that will get whatever is required of it done.

What are key product differentiators that perspective buyers should really consider about Inspired Flight?

One of the biggest differentiators of Inspired Flight’s products that buyers should consider is that we are an American company through and through. The large majority of our parts are made in America and everything is designed and tested by us in San Luis Obispo, California. Besides that, they should know that there isn’t another commercial drone platform currently on the market with the level of modularity, programmability, and customizability as the ones offered by Inspired Flight.

What is Inspired Flight’s support model?

Our support model is something very important to us as we each have experienced the pains of having something go wrong with a drone and not being able to receive proper help from the manufacturer. We offer two levels of support, basic and advanced. Our basic support model includes a 90-day warranty on everything we sell with the ability to extend that to a full year simply by registering your purchase through us. If anything were to go wrong with your drone we will get you on the phone with our engineering team so that we can help you get your drone back in the air as soon as possible.

Our advanced support model works at an autonomous level with the drone itself. We integrated many diagnostic capabilities into the IF750A and with advanced support we can alert the user if anything was detected to be going wrong within the drone. For example, if the drone starts to develop an abnormal vibration the aircraft can autonomously alert our support staff and send us a flight log, thereby allowing us to preemptively offer replacement parts and or service before it causes a larger failure. With this advanced support we also offer free propeller replacements if they were to break and free parachute re-packing in the event of an emergency deployment.

Do you tend to sell more kits or assembled aircraft? What options tend to be the most popular?

We sell more fully assembled IF700 quadcopter compared to unassembled kits. The IF700 comes with a Pelican drone case, Pixhawk 2.1 flight controller, ballistic parachute and a retractable landing gear.

Our most exciting option is the ballistic parachute system, which is designed to protect the drone and the camera against crashes. Our rail mount system underneath the drone allows for the swapping of gimbal plates, which gives the user flexibility of payloads. Our retractable landing gear is another awesome feature as it provides 360 degree viewing capability.

However, the IF750A is soon to be the pinnacle product of our company. The IF750A combines the latest sensors such as Intel’s RealSense for obstacle avoidance, Trimble for high-precision navigation, Sony for professional imaging, and Airmap software integration for UTM services. It supports numerous applications with open interfaces, and has cutting edge software technology for flight.

Who are Inspired Flight’s main customers? Any markets you’re not quite in yet that you want to enter?

 Our main customers tend to be in the inspection, photography, and agriculture industries because our drones have the capability of switching between payloads to accommodate whatever application the user needs. A market that we are going after very aggressively right now is the security and defense industries as we see a lot of potential for our platform to be leveraged for those applications.

Our main markets are are in the advanced level imaging fields: professional aerial photography, surveying & mapping, security, and inspection. The IF750 is designed to carry a DSLR camera, Thermal Camera, full spectrum camera, and LIDAR; exploring more markets that utilize these technologies is our main priority right now. In the future we would like to go after heavier payloads like full cinema cameras, crop sprayers, and package delivery.

Finally- Any customer stories that you are particularly excited about?

One of our favorite current uses of our product is an educational curriculum a professor created around the IF700 at California University of Pennsylvania. The distinguished professor who teaches in the department of applied engineering and technology, created a course designed to introduce young engineers into the field of drones. By utilizing our unassembled IF700 kit, the students are able to receive a hands-on experience through building and understanding the components and technology necessary to get the quadcopters flying. The end result in being able to fly a drone that they personally put hours of effort into is a rewarding feeling for the students and is a great way to learn and have fun in the same process. Even if students suffer a crash, and specific components break on the drone, we are able to ship replacement parts the next day and get them back to flying as soon as possible. The modularity and payload capabilities are very important in a learning environment because it allows the students to be creative and think outside the box in terms of how they want to utilize the drones that they are responsible for creating.

Learn more at the company’s web site

And more about Auterion

A Brief But Deep Glimpse Into the Drone Industry Proper

When opportunity knocks, you answer the door. Have a look at this invite:

Yup. I can do that… he said with his ‘lil heart all a-flutter. I’ve been following the evolution of commercial drone use (and generally all things under the drone sun) for a while now. I’ve written about drones as productivity tools, drones as network security threats, and even drones as a defense against the poaching of elephants. I have my own drones, and am an FAA-licensed Part 107 Remote Pilot.

You could kinda say that I’m into it- like all of it- when it comes to drones. I just find the entire paradigm incredibly fascinating, from benefits to concerns, and from politics to the tech side of it. So when a company like PrecisionHawk wants to talk, I definitely make the time.

Pat Lohman is one of the VPs at PrecisionHawk, and was an absolute gentleman in fielding my questions and lending his insider perspective, and we covered a lot of ground. As a company, PrecisionHawk will certainly sell you drones and high-end sensors. But Lohman educated me on the company’s role as an integrator who provides really powerful analysis for a number of verticals, including agriculture, construction, energy, insurance, and government.


We talked about the specific cases that come with tower sites. It’s easy to sum it all up with “aerial inspection”, but that completely does a disservice to what’s really in play with PrecisionHawk’s services. Before tower construction, highly accurate land surveying is done from the air. Through tower construction, periodic inspections help ensure that the tower is being built right (and after-the-fact inspections for already-built towers reveal construction mistakes that can be dangerous or that work against the structure’s purpose). Once the tower is built, a range of services become relevant.

Picture 3D-mapping of a tower, and everything on it displayed with precise 3D point clouds (see this video primer on 3D point clouds from Vectorworks.) Now lets add in some of that analysis that is PrecisionHawk’s bread-and-butter: a given antenna on the tower is supposed to have a specific orientation to deliver the coverage it was installed to provide. That orientation is determined to be off a couple of degrees, and through various integrations with end customers’ support systems, an alert is generated and a truck gets rolled to adjust the antenna. “Value” takes on a lot of dimensions here, and Lohman stresses that PrecisionHawk is in the business of creating value. That doesn’t just happen because drones are in the air gathering data, but rather as a result of the sophisticated science that happens with that data. The real magic comes after the data collection and mapping is done, and the analytics kick in.

The most value comes from sound, streamlined processes that get the drones up and back down, crunch the data, and provide actionable intel. That’s what PrecisionHawk specializes in.

We spoke of different use cases and where the majority of time gets spent on each. For example, photo and video work is mostly all flying time, while sensor-based work is far more intensive in post processing, after the drones are back on the ground.

Lohman was most accommodating as I jumped around topics. We spoke of how the high and low ends of the drone device space are blurring, and how DJI pretty much owns the space at this point. I asked what impact the “no Chinese drones allowed” regulations have on PrecionHawk’s work with government agencies, and Lohman explained how the company will integrate any platform’s data, but the cost to do one-offs is more because of the added work involved when you get away from the mainstream DJI-type inputs. he was also clear in stressing that the drone itself is secondary in importance to the data it brings home.

I asked if fixed-wing drones have advantages over rotary crafts in different situations, and Lohman patiently gave me a quick history of fixed-wings having their start in agriculture because they could stay up longer when covering huge swaths of land, and how cell sites and structure inspection require the agility of the copters. Lohman also expects more hybrids- drones that can fly with fixed wings but vertically take off and land- to gain mass adoption.

We talked about what sensors see the most action. Here it’s still *mostly* visual missions flown, but thermal inspections are growing, and multi-spectral sensors are a key part of agricultural drone ops. LIDAR is the at the high end of expense when it comes to sensors, and you may pay upwards of $200K for LIDAR. That’s a big pricetag, but this is technology that not so long ago cost in the millions and was reserved for military use.

Finally, we bantered a little about the current fragmented nature of airspace regulation relating to drones (the current mismash of rules between the FAA and local governmental agencies is unsustainable), educational opportunities around unmanned aerial systems at schools like Embry-Riddle and Kansas State, and up-and-coming advocacy groups that seek to improve the commercial drone industry’s standing in a number of fronts. These include the Small UAV Coalition and the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI), and even which is owned by PrecisionHawk and is a framework that gets a growing number of independent licensed drone pilots (like me) work- with common training, ground rules, approach, and respectable pay.




Drone Law Soup

Since I famously became a drone guy, I’ve been getting a wide-ranging education on many aspects of The Droniverse. I’ve been gathering little pieces of content and knowledge that I care about here on this page of this blog, and getting a lot of perspective from more experienced flyers through various user groups and forums. It gets more fascinating every day.

One aspect of dronery (I made that word up) that is truly astounding is just how royally dicked up the regulatory climate far and wide has become when it comes to flying our beloved unmanned aircraft systems. It doesn’t matter whether you are a hobbyist or an FAA-certificated Remote Pilot like myself, the legality of flying drones could not be in a worse state of disarray.

Looking at the FAA’s guidance, you wouldn’t think it could be that bad.

drone rules1

But it is THAT BAD. It seems like every state and many cities, universities, towns, villages, hamlets, and church choirs are making their own rules regarding drone flight. Forget that the FAA is federal and that many/most of these additional regs wouldn’t stand up in court- fighting City Hall ain’t cheap and few individuals are going to have the expendable coin to lawyer up on the issue (and there is no central lobbying force that I know of that could stand up against the growing regulatory morass).

But don’t take my word for it… let’s look at some real world examples.

Santa Clara University says “more no than yes” while Nebraska says “sure”, conditionally.

The State of Connecticut has rightfully recognized the FAA as the sole authority in this space, and it’s Public Act No. 17-52 “Prohibits cities and municipalities in the state from enacting their own drone-related regulations or ordinances.”

But then you have Delaware- despite also “preventing” municipalities from doing their own thing, one town did exactly that (from

Hmmm. It just goes on and on. Here in my corner of the world, each of these has their own legislation/regulations on drone use (most flat-out prohibit drones, or make getting permission so impracticable as to equal prohibition:

And it gets worse… their are dozens of pending/proposed laws on the books in the Democratic People’s Republic of New York alone, not to mention all the legislative activity in other states aimed at drones. See many of them here– although I think this site is unaware of as many as it knows about.

As with any technology, drones can be used for good and by people who make a living from them doing really innovative things. And they can also be used for pure stupidity by peeping toms, beach pervies, village idiots and others in the “we need laws because of THESE morons” category. The problem is that our fine civil servants (I use to be one myself, so I know first-hand of what I speak) are too quick to group all drone operators into the same bucket, or have no clue on existing laws or where their own regulatory reach legally ends before passing new ordinances.

And… it’s only going to get worse before it gets better.

If you are new to drones or thinking about getting into it, I have no doubt that you’ll find “flying legal” to be challenging in many, many locations. You may also be tempted to ignore the ugly patchwork of federal, state, and local laws and take your chances flying illegally. If you do, more power to you… but please remember that when you do the truly stupid stuff that becomes a nuisance, you set in motion a Butterfly Effect that ultimately makes life tough for those of us who strive to be legal.

Thanks for reading.

I Don’t Fly Drones, I’m an Unmanned Aircraft System Remote Pilot


Today, I sat for the Federal Aviation Agency’s “Part 107” exam. I passed by a comfortable margin, but it was no walk in the park. I studied hard, probably a total of 25-35 hours (I’ll tell you how I studied in a bit). I made an appointment for the exam at a flying school that also tests for every level of pilot skill. I paid $150, filled out FAA paperwork, and had an awesome test proctor named Mario. (He flew on EC-47s in Vietnam doing electronic warfare, which was my own career field under the USAF’s Tactical Air Command a dozen and a half years later. It’s really a small world sometimes.) I had butterflies, as it was a formal test setting… I struggled with maybe 10 of the 60 questions, but ultimately found that my studying had paid off when I saw my final score.

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are a real deal in the aviation world these days. You can read elsewhere about just how big of a force they are becoming, but if you are going to use drones ANYWHERE in a business setting then you should be licensed as a remote pilot. For one thing, it’s the law. For another, you will learn a lot along the way as you study for the exam that will help you to not get in trouble as you use your drone for business.

Get Your Mind Right

Drones are playthings. Toys. Model flying machines that you race and take videos with on the hobby side of life. There’s no negativity here, and I use my own drone in this way as well sometimes. But when you cross that line and put your small unmanned aircraft to practical, revenue-generating operational use, EVERYONE benefits from you reshaping your attitude. That UAS is a legitimate aircraft (you’ll put a tail number on it) and you are a licensed pilot. You and your craft can achieve great things, but you also have to understand where you fit in the overall framework of the aviation system. Skip it all and be a rogue operator, and you can easily put lives and property at risk- and I’m not being dramatic. The journey to getting that license will teach you incredible things about the aeronautical world that you’ll be a part of.

How to Approach the Study Process

If you are an accomplished self-study kinda person, then read on. If you don’t do so good teaching yourself new and complicated material- and this is absolutely a complicated body of knowledge- then you probably ought to invest in one of the many available online ground schools. If you’re serious about going down this road, it will be time and money well spent.

I happen to be very good at self-study, with more years than I care to admit spent perfecting techniques that work for me. There are a a lot of blogs and videos out there about “How I passed the Part 107 exam”, and each is a personal testimony that may or may not bring value to you. What comes next here is my own methodology- I make no promises that it will work for you. But what may be different about my approach is that I also happen to be an educator, researcher, writer, and analyst. I think critically, and I generally don’t cut corners.

What Worked For Me

Here we go.

You are after achievement of competency/mastery in a working knowledge of these areas:

  1. Applicable regulations relating to small unmanned aircraft system rating privileges, limitations, and flight operation
  2. Airspace classification and operating requirements, and flight restrictions affecting small unmanned aircraft operation
  3. Aviation weather sources and effects of weather on small unmanned aircraft performance
  4. Small unmanned aircraft loading and performance
  5. Emergency procedures
  6. Crew resource management
  7. Radio communication procedures
  8. Determining the performance of small unmanned aircraft
  9. Physiological effects of drugs and alcohol
  10. Aeronautical decision-making and judgment
  11. Airport operations
  12. Maintenance and preflight inspection procedures

This is the prize that your eyes need to stay on. Now get to it- and have a notebook at the ready.

  • Visit this FAA page– bookmark it and refer to it often (some exam answers are on the page). Download the PDF version of each of the Suggested Study Materials and give each at least one read-through. Don’t get hung up on memorizing stuff yet, but try to remember what is in each resource. You’ll be coming back to them.
  • Watch this video by Tony Northrup. I love his delivery, his style, and that he gave of his time and perspective freely for the rest of us. I do NOT agree with his assessment that the Part 107 exam was a cake-walk. I know that mine certainly was not. Refer back to parts about sectional charts, METARS, and TAFs as often as you need to. You need to be as comfortable with all these as he is.
  • Take yourself to the free Part 107 exam site at the King Flight School. Note that you can test on each individual knowledge area, and I recommend that you do. Then take the practice test with 60 questions from all the areas at least a couple of times. GET THAT NOTEBOOK OUT. Through the King Practice tests, you’ll start to find specific areas that stump you. Write those questions down in your notebook. Don’t get hung up on them. Take a break from King… but you’re not done here.
  • Take yourself to the 3DR Part 107 practice test pages. You’ll find great overlap with King, but the look and feel is different enough to help you to not fall under the spell of simple memorization of any one test site. The same guidance on stumpers applies here- write them in your notebook. But don’t get down on yourself for anything that isn’t clicking- this is some pretty arcane stuff in spots. You’re not done here either…
  • If you have an Android device, get this app. Like the King site, you can test on individual areas or the whole mix, and there is also a handy Study Mode with decent explanations. Here too, use that notebook when something stumps you.
  • Run through ALL THREE OF THESE PRACTICE TEST FRAMEWORKS a couple of times. By now, you’ll feel your confidence growing in spots and frustrations mounting in others.
  • Hopefully, you have several pages in your notebook of individual questions- that represent discreet topics- to work on. And you’ll work on them via the FCC docs that you downloaded back in the beginning. The PHAK will be your main go-to here. Don’t just clarify the question that confused you- remember that the question represents an entire topic, and you have to explore all facets of that topic. I can’t stress this enough, especially for the Sectional Charts and Airspace Classes. Gotta know them cold, I tellya.
  • In the remaining time, rotate through your notes/areas that challenge you, and each of the practice tests. By now you’ll be somewhat in the trap of having memorized many of the questions and answers. Discipline yourself to slow it down, not be a robot, and actually read the words while thinking about the bigger topic.


How Did This End Up Working For Me?

Pretty good, actually. I felt that I had gone far past brute memorization of practice tests, and actually learned A LOT. (I also want to build on that knowledge through real life experiences as a commercial UAS pilot). There were questions that threw me for a loop on the real exam, but I learned enough in studying to make decent guesses and to rule out bad answers.

As a Part 107 pilot, I have to recertify every 24 months. I’m comfortable that my initial studying was done with sufficient depth of retention (and sparking of the desire to keep learning along the way) that I’ll be in pretty good shape when I do this again in 2020.

Good luck to you on your own quest to get licensed.


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